History of Biblical Meditation: Ancient Practices & Insights

An ancient Jewish woman meditating on the Word of God.

Have you ever felt like something’s missing in your spiritual practice? Are you looking for a way to deepen your connection with the divine? If so, you’re in the right place. In this blog post, we’ll take a journey back in time to uncover the fascinating history of biblical meditation.

The timeless practice of meditation, though often associated with Eastern spirituality, has deep roots in biblical antiquity. This profound tradition of introspection and contemplation has been pivotal in shaping the moral, ethical, and spiritual consciousness of myriad societies.

In the hallowed scrolls of biblical scripture, meditation was practiced to forge a deeper connection with divinity, to seek solace in times of turmoil, and to find inner strength during trials. The echoes of this ancient wisdom resonate even today as we continue to seek tranquility and understanding through the sacred practice of meditation.

From ancient practices to timeless insights, we’ll explore the ways in which this powerful spiritual practice can transform your life and enhance your spiritual journey. Get ready to discover a new level of connection and meaning in your spiritual practice.

               History of Meditation 

Time Period


5000-3500 BCE                   The oldest documented evidence of meditation is found in wall art from the Indian subcontinent, depicting people seated in meditative postures with half-closed eyes.
1500 BCE The oldest written mention of meditation is found in the Vedas, ancient Hindu scriptures from India.
1200 BCE The Old Testament period begins, and the practice of biblical meditation is believed to have been used during this time.
600 BCE The Chinese Taoist tradition begins to develop its own version of meditation practice.
500 BCE The Indian Buddhist tradition begins to develop its own version of meditation practice.
400 BCE The Hebrew word “hâgâh” is used to describe the act of meditating on God’s word in the Old Testament.
300-600 BCE Early forms of meditation are referenced in ancient Chinese philosopher Laozi’s writings.
30-33 CE Jesus Christ teaches his followers to meditate on God’s word and to pray in private.
50-60 CE The Apostle Paul encourages Christians to meditate on God’s word and to renew their minds through meditation.
200 BCE The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are written, providing a comprehensive guide to meditation practice in India.
400-500 CE

The Chinese Buddhist meditation practice begins to develop. The Christian monk John Cassian also writes about the practice of biblical meditation.

600-800 CE The Desert Fathers of the Middle East develop their own forms of meditation practice.
1200-1300 CE Saint Francis of Assisi and Saint Dominic develop their own forms of meditation practice in Europe. Christian mystics also develop their own forms of biblical meditation.
1500-1600 CE The Protestant Reformation emphasizes the importance of personal meditation on God’s word, leading to the development of new forms of biblical meditation.

Origins of Biblical Meditation

The practice of biblical meditation has its origins in the Bible itself. The word “meditation” appears frequently in the Bible, with its Hebrew and Greek equivalents appearing more than 70 times. In the Old Testament, meditation involved reciting God’s Word, helping internalize and apply His commands.

Biblical meditation originated in ancient Israel as a means to connect with God and seek his guidance and wisdom.

Meditation, deeply rooted in Jewish culture, is mentioned in the Torah as a way to focus one’s mind on God’s law. The Psalms also contain numerous references to meditation as a means of seeking God’s wisdom and truth.

Ancient Jewish Meditation Practices

In the sphere of Jewish worship, meditation isn’t merely a component – it’s the lifeblood, the heartbeat that resonates with the rhythm of divine connection. It serves as a deeply personal conduit to the Divine, fostering a sacred intimacy between the worshipper and their spirituality.

Meditation in Jewish worship isn’t just a practice; it’s a transformative experience, a spiritual odyssey that elevates one’s consciousness and amplifies the resonance of their faith. It is the profound key that unlocks a deeper understanding and a more intimate bond with the Divine.

Examples of Jewish meditation practices

Jewish meditation practices encompass a rich tapestry of spiritual techniques and traditions that have evolved throughout history. One example is Hitbodedut, a form of spontaneous, personal prayer and meditation practiced by Hasidic Jews. In Hitbodedut, individuals engage in secluded contemplation, expressing their deepest thoughts and emotions to connect with God on an intimate level.

Another practice is the use of repetitive chants or mantras, such as the recitation of Psalms or sacred Hebrew phrases, which are believed to quiet the mind and open pathways to divine connection.

Additionally, Jewish meditation draws inspiration from ancient Jewish texts and teachings, incorporating breath awareness, visualization, and focused attention on specific prayers or sacred objects. These practices aim to cultivate inner awareness, foster gratitude, and deepen one’s spiritual connection within the framework of Jewish faith and tradition.

Christian Meditation

Early Christians, later called Desert Fathers, pursued spiritual growth in 4th-century Palestine and Egypt deserts. These pious people became an early model of monastic Christian life, and their meditative practices still inspire believers today.

The origins of biblical meditation can be traced back to its biblical roots and the early monastic movements, particularly the Desert Fathers. This spiritual practice remains significant in the Christian tradition, urging believers to contemplate Bible teachings and values actively.

Meditation in the Old Testament

Biblical Meditation has its roots in the Old Testament and was practiced as a form of worship and divine communion.

The practice has been a part of religious traditions for thousands of years, and it is no exception in the Old Testament. In fact, the Old Testament is filled with references to meditation as a means of connecting with God and finding inner peace. A well-known example is in the Psalms, where the writer urges readers to meditate on God’s law day and night.

Other examples of meditation in the Old Testament include the prophet Isaiah, who spoke of meditating on God’s word as a means of finding strength and comfort.

King David frequently meditated on the wonders of God’s creation, as reflected in many of his psalms. For example, in Psalm 19:1, he writes, “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands.”

David marvels, in Psalm 8, at the majesty of God’s creation, writing, “When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have set in place, what is mankind that you are mindful of them, human beings that you care for them?”

Through his meditations on nature, David was able to deepen his understanding of God’s power and love.

Biblical Meditation, a common Old Testament practice, was vital for those seeking to know and connect with God in their spiritual lives.

Psalms and Meditation

An Image of the book of the Bible entitled Psalms

The Psalms, a collection of ancient Hebrew poetry, has inspired and comforted millions of people throughout history. Many people have found that meditating on the Psalms can be a powerful way to connect with God and cultivate inner peace.

Whether facing trials or seeking deeper meaning, the Psalms provide a wealth of wisdom and guidance for our spiritual journeys.

Practicing Biblical meditation allows access to timeless wisdom, fostering peace and joy amid life’s challenges.

Various Psalms mention meditation as a way to connect with God. For example, Psalm 1:2-3 focuses on meditating on God’s law day and night. This form of meditation involved pondering the words of Scripture while trusting the Holy Spirit to work within one’s heart.

Prophetic Meditation

Biblical prophets were also engaged in meditation as part of their spiritual practices. This object-oriented meditation involved detaching from the world’s influences and attaching oneself to God through Christ.

1 Kings 19:11-12, describes how the prophet Elijah meditated in a cave, waiting for the Lord to speak to him.

Ezekiel 1:1-28, reports that the prophet Ezekiel receives a vision of God while in exile in Babylon. Before the vision, Ezekiel describes himself as “among the exiles by the Kebar River” and as being “overwhelmed” by the vision he received. This suggests that Ezekiel engaged in a meditative state to receive the vision.

The scripture Isaiah 6:1-8 states that the prophet Isaiah also receives a vision of God. Before the vision, Isaiah says, “Woe to me!… I am ruined! For I am a man of unclean lips, and I live among a people of unclean lips.” This self-awareness and humility may indicate a meditative state that allowed Isaiah to receive the vision.

These examples show that prophetic meditation is not only a practice of individual spiritual growth but can also lead to receiving divine revelations.

Through prophetic meditation, believers found spiritual renewal and refreshment that prepared them to enter into the world’s demands. This form of meditation further deepened the connection between God and His people, strengthening their faith.

Meditation in the New Testament

Meditation has played a significant role in the New Testament, with Jesus and Paul providing key insights into this practice.

Jesus and Meditation

In the New Testament, Jesus demonstrated the importance of meditation through his deep connection with the Scriptures. He often quoted and meditated on the Word of God during his life and ministry. It is evident that Jesus valued scripture and used meditation as a way to stay grounded in His relationship with God.

In Christianity, the 40-day fast and meditation of Jesus holds significant importance. After being baptized, Jesus withdrew to the wilderness and abstained from food and meditated for 40 days and nights (Matthew 4:1-11, Luke 4:1-13). This period is considered to be a time of spiritual growth, preparation for ministry, and resisting temptation. The story emphasizes the importance of self-discipline and reflecting on one’s spirituality.

Additionally, Jesus’ teachings on prayer, such as the Lord’s Prayer, reflect an emphasis on spiritual reflection and inner contemplation.

Jesus is depicted as a prayerful man in the Bible, likely meditating for divine connection (Matthew 14:23, Mark 1:35, Luke 5:16, Luke 6:12, Luke 9:18, Luke 11:1).

The New Testament mentions Jesus seeking solitude for prayer (Mark 1:35, Luke 5:16), notably in Gethsemane before crucifixion (Matthew 26:36-46, Mark 14:32-42, Luke 22:39-46).

His teachings stress inner peace and stillness, key meditation components (Matthew 6:6, Luke 17:20-21). Today, Christians utilize meditation as a means to strengthen their faith and develop a closer relationship with Jesus Christ.

Pauline Teachings on Meditation

The Apostle Paul also offered guidance on the practice of meditation in his letters to the early Christian communities. For example, in Philippians 4:8, Paul encourages believers to meditate on things that are true, noble, right, pure, lovely, admirable, excellent, and praiseworthy.

In 1 Corinthians 14:15, Paul discusses praying and singing with spirit and mind, implying a meditative prayer form engaging both emotions and intellect.

He further urges Christians, in Colossians 3:2, to focus their minds on heavenly things, rather than earthly concerns. These teachings highlight the importance of cultivating a Christ-centered approach to meditation.

The New Testament offers valuable guidance on meditation, with insights from Jesus and Apostle Paul on engaging in this spiritual activity. By following their teachings, Christians can deepen their faith and grow closer to God through meditation and contemplation.

Meditation in Medieval and Reformation Christianity

Monastic Traditions

In the medieval era, Christian meditation was largely influenced by monastic traditions. Hugh of Saint Victor was influential in developing meditation techniques. He emphasized thinking, meditation, and contemplation for deepening connection with God.

Another important figure was Guigo II, whose work, “Ladder of Monks,” became a cornerstone in the field. Guigo emphasized the importance of Lectio Divina, a practice where a person reads, meditates, prays, and contemplates on the scripture. For more information on Lectio Divina please read, “Is Lectio Divina Safe to Practice? Exploring the Benefits and Risks”.

Protestant Reformation Perspectives

During the Protestant Reformation, Christian meditation experienced significant changes. Reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin emphasized the importance of scripture and personal faith in connecting with God. This focus led to the development of new meditation practices that centered on scripture reading and reflection.

Ignatius of Loyola, a Counter-Reformation figure, developed a technique for meditating on biblical scenes. The meditator converses with Jesus or other biblical figures, immersing themselves fully. This practice allowed for a deeper, more personal connection with God through meditation and contemplation.

Modern Developments in Biblical Meditation

In recent times, biblical meditation has undergone significant changes, adapting to the needs of modern society. This period has seen the rise of Contemplative Prayer Movements and Interfaith Dialogue and Influence.

Contemplative Prayer Movements

One major development in biblical meditation is the growth of contemplative prayer movements. These practices emphasize the importance of quiet, focused reflection on a Bible passage or a specific aspect of God’s character.

Examples include Centering Prayer, developed by Thomas Keating, and Lectio Divina, an ancient practice traced back to the early Christian monks. Contemplative prayer methods gained popularity in the 20th century and continue to flourish, helping believers deepen their spiritual connection.

Combining Meditative Practices

Another notable factor in the evolution of biblical meditation is the increasing dialogue between Christianity and other faiths.

Christian practitioners have learned meditation techniques like mindfulness and insight meditation from Buddhism. Today, meditation has become a popular form of spiritual practice, with the Dalai Lama and transcendental meditation teachers advocating for its benefits.

Christians have incorporated elements from diverse spiritual foundations, making biblical meditation more inclusive and accessible.

Warning: Avoid Interfaith Meditative Practices

An image of a warning sign in a beautiful natural setting.

Biblical meditation is the practice of focusing on God’s Word and His character, and its goal is obedience.

The Bible explicitly promotes meditating on God’s Word day and night (Psalm 119:97; Psalm 119:148).

When Joshua was told to meditate constantly on God’s law, his meditation was to make him “careful to do everything written in it” (Joshua 1:8). Therefore, any practice that does not align with the teachings of the Bible should be avoided.

Incorporating non-Christian meditative practices into biblical meditation can also lead to syncretism, which is the blending of different religious beliefs and practices.

This can cause confusion and dilute the Christian faith.

Christians should carefully avoid adopting practices rooted in non-Christian religions, as these practices may lead to a loss of focus on God’s Word and a shift in spiritual priorities.

Instead, Christians should seek to deepen their understanding of biblical meditation and cultivate a deeper relationship with God through prayer and reflection on His Word.


In conclusion, the practice of biblical meditation has a rich and diverse history that spans across many religions and cultures. From ancient texts in India and Taoist China to the practices of Buddhism and Christian monks, meditation has been an integral part of many beliefs and practices.

Christian meditation has historical roots and plays a key role in nurturing a connection with God. Unlike eastern meditation, this practice centers on contemplating and reflecting upon God’s word and teachings.

Through the practice of biblical meditation, believers can strengthen their faith, gain spiritual insight, and find solace in their relationship with God. It is important to dedicate time daily to meditate on scripture and allow oneself to be deeply immersed in the experience.

Pondering the words of Scripture and trusting the Holy Spirit to work directly in meditation has been a focus of meditation for many Christians.

People are discovering the importance of meditation and finding different techniques to understand God and His Word. By training the mind and focusing on God’s law, Christian meditation helps to understand His will and feel closer to Him.


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